Introducing Tools for Energy Sustainability in Indonesian Hotels
By Bill Meade Director, Tetra Tech | May 17, 2015
Co-authored by Imas Agustina, Independent Consultant,Tetra Tech
Between 2009 and 2013, Indonesia witnessed the opening of 538 classified hotel establishments with a cumulative room count of 52,716 rooms, corresponding to a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of approximately 9.5% for both the number of establishments and the number of new rooms during the five-year period. A vast majority of the hotel supply growth in recent years can be attributed to the development of budget and economy class hotels. The expanding middle class and growth of Indonesia's aviation industry (and subsequently increasing network) have encouraged more people to travel, bolstering investments in hotels and restaurants by more than 200% since 2011.(1)
Based on a survey to hundreds of hotel properties across 12 Indonesian big cities, annually conducted by Horwath HTL and the Indonesia Hotel and Restaurant Association, the average electricity consumption intensity was 489 kWh/m2 in 2012 and 566 kWh/m2 in 2013 (of the conditioned area).
Another survey conducted annually by the Indonesian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources through its energy audit program of 20 hotels revealed the average of electricity consumption intensity at 426 kWh/m2 in 2012 (excluding other fuels such as natural gas, LPG and diesel fuel for self-generation).(2) By comparison, based on the Horwath/IHRA survey results, Indonesian hotels consume approximately 52% more energy per m2 than US hotels, according U.S. Department of Energy data.
The current stock of hotels in Indonesia varies considerably based on the year built (or renovated), the type (economy, business, leisure), size, and ownership. In order to better understand hotel energy consumption and help the industry improve its energy performance, the Indonesia Clean Energy Development (ICED)(3) designed a pilot program to introduce energy management. The program consisted of audits, monitoring tools, a best practice guide, and a variety of comparative measures to assist hotel managers and engineers. The program targeted hotels in Jakarta, Bali and Jogjakarta, three of Indonesia's largest tourist destination, over the period 2013-1014. The following approaches were used: 1) benchmark each hotel's energy performance, 2) facilitate building energy management, and 3) improved hotel industry knowledge on energy management.
Benchmarking Hotel Energy Performance